Hi All,


Recently I have been a part of a SCN discussion thread, where we have discussed about some critical factors needed to be considered professionally while KT is planned in IT out-sourcing model. We had some really thought provoking inputs provided by Martin, Anand and off course Craig, who have moderated our entire discussion in the below thread:



I would like to summarize this discussion in the form of a BLOG, which can add value to a wider audience, who time and again come across such situations in their business activities. Before I proceed ahead in documenting the points discussed, I would like to sincerely thank all the participants for sharing their valuable inputs. Will request others consultants/readers reading this blog to share their thoughts and experiences as well, so that this document can be improved for better usability of the community.



Their are certain essential factors needed to be considered during different stages of KT process, majorly applicable for an IT outsourcing model:


A) Before KT - A basic preparation form the team receiving KT can really help this process a big way.


  • The team receiving KT needs to understand what kind of industry and major business processes, your client is engaged with, For example, is it Chemical, or Automotive, or Mining, or Manufacturing, or Agro-business, or Hi-Tech, etc
  • Go through client's home page and try to gather some generic inputs about the industry they are working with and their geographical presence, which is adding as a plus factor for success in competitive business.
  • If possible, make a SWOT analysis based on your own high-level understanding about the major processes implemented, depending on data available on public domain. This is not a mandatory step, but at times during KT you can ask some specific questions which may add value.
  • If possible, try to collaborate with your counter parts, having different industry domain experience and discuss your observations at high level . If someone who has worked in shop-floor for similar domain, but NOT a part of this present KT team, then his inputs can be really useful for your better planning and preparation.


B) During KT - Important technological and behavioral factors, needed to be emphasized religiously.


  • As Craig rightly suggested, it's not always a easy or lucrative task for someone who is responsible for the KT process. There may be 'uncertainties' linked to it and hence it needs thorough consideration form the team.
  • Utmost courtesy needs to be maintained through the entire KT process, based on cultural sensitivity factors.
  • Try to be a Good and Active listener while KT process is on. There is no herm in asking a question more than one times, but if the same is already answered before to someone else, then it may not look good to ask it again.
  • While KT, try to make the sessions interactive by sharing your researched inputs, and try to get better clarifications. Please note that KT responsible may not have all detail level inputs ready at the moment to share. So, please keep the channel for further collaboration open, for example email feedback, reverse KT, etc.
  • Please plan for some technical sessions, where major aspects for processes can be explained to maximum possible extent. If due to time constraints, this step is not planned or getting delayed, then you can follow-up with team for email sharing of the documents. In turn, you can go through the details provided and send email back to KT stakeholder, if there are any open points.



C) After KT -


  • Please collect available documentations form KT provider like Business Process List (Commonly called as BPML), Detailed Process List (Either Visio or Power Point presentation of detailed processes implemented), RICEFW list (Majorly used by ABAP Team), GAP list (For any un addressed topics), Customization Document (majorly used by Functional Team), Z-report list, Interface List (which are not included in RICEFW list), Batch Job List, etc.
  • If there are any open documentation not available during KT, then please ensure you receive them before KT process is over. Because once KT is done, then the entire responsibility lies with the next team to maintain business continuity.
  • Plan for a reverse KT, if agreed in your contract. You can do it informally too through emails, whichever is comfortable to you and KT responsible.
  • Once KT process is done, please share your vote of THANKS to KT provider. This is very important to show professional respect to the team who have done a tremendous job and helped your team to complete the KT.




Hi,I would like to share one of quality inspection scenario I have mapped.


Business Scenario : Business involved in Panel manufacturing process with MTO scenario,where panel components are supplied to subcontractor and after completion of assembly at subcontractor end,subcontractor inform to buyer for Quality Inspection,Buyer inform to Quality engineer that assembly is ready for quality inspection,after completion of quality inspection at vendor location.Quality engineer give clearance to subcontractor for delivery of goods at factory.Quality report are prepared manually and informed to buyer and store manager.on receipt of assembly at factory,Final Inspection of assembly is completed.


Challenges in current process :

1.Defect occur at vendor end inspection can not be capture.

2.Reason for defect happend during inspection not available.

3.Number of Inspection held at vendor-end not available.

4.Reason for delay not captured either by subcontractor or by Quality engineer or by buyer.

5.Cost of Quality Inspection can not be identified.


SAP Solution :

  1. Assembly material Master should be updated with Inspection type 89 -other inspection.
  2. On receipt of message from subcontractor to Buyer for rediness of assembly.buyer to create Internal problem QM notification.
  3. Send email to Quality engineer through Quality notification change screen.
  4. Quality engineer visit vendor location and perform Quality Inspection of assembly as per check list and update result to vendor and buyer.
  5. Quality engineer has to create Inspection lot against QM notification and update result against it as per vendor end Quality report.
  6. Quality report is scan and attached to document through DMS.
  7. In case of defect during Inspection,rework will be done by vendor and re-inspection for same assembly will be captured by different QM notification.
  8. Final Inspection will be done on goods receipt against Purchase order.
  9. Accepted assembly moves to unrestricetd use and rejected will be moves to block stock.


Process-flow-chart for vendor end Inspection


Advantages of mapping vendor-end-inspection in SAP.

1.Defect appearing in vendor-end-inspection available for quality analysis.

2.Reason for delay is identified and corrective action taken for it,to have on time delivery to cutomer.

3.Number of re-inspection are captured which help in corrective action.

4.Cost of Inspection can be identified.



I hope scenario discuss herewith will be helpful to you



Hi,I want to share my experience of implementing calibration process in SAP.we have use SAP MM,SAP QM and SAP PM module for mapping required scenario.


Business Scenario :Business has to do calibration of test equipments on periodic basis,calibration of few equipment is inhouse and for few equipment it will be done by external vendor.after calibration test equipment location details,calibration date are updated in document called history card.history card consist of unique serial number which is also label on test equipments.schedule of test equipment calibration is maintain manually.Quality control team has to review documents regularly to know Test equipments pending for Calibration.


Challenges during SAP Implementation :

1.Uploading of existing Test Equipments in SAP system

2.Capturing history of each and every Test Equipment with Calibration status,Last Calibration date,Procurement details,Location details.

3.Automatic reminder for Test Equipment Calibration.

4.Capturing Calibration Certificate.

5.Identify Test Equipments at Vendor Locations.


SAP Implementation

Steps we followed for mapping calibration process in SAP are as below :


Master data creation:


1.Identified Test equipments with common attributes and created unique material code for same with serial number profile.

2.serial number profile profile is created in such way that Equipment number and Serial number will be same

3.Physical stock of Test Equipment are noted in excel sheet.

4.Test Equipment stock upload done in SAP using initial stock movement 561.

5.Test Equipment at vendor location uploaded in system using initial stock movement 561-O.

6.Attributes required for Calibration check are created in SAP as Master Inspection Characteristics (MIC).

7.Test Equipment with common check list are identified and group task prepared for such equipment with Master Inspection Characteristics

8.For special equipments Equipment task list is prepared with MIC.

9.Maintenance Plan/Calibration Plan created with frequency of calibration period ie.monthly,half yearly or yearly.

10.Scheduling of maintenance plan (IP24) as background job.


Calibration order execution :

1.Calibration order get generated in system automatically base of calibration(IW39).

2.Calibration order are review and release for Calibration operation.

3.On release of order,In case of Inhouse Calibration,Inspection lot will get generated,Quality Inspector can perform calibration and update result in system against Inspection lot ( QA32 ).after completion of operation,operation confirmation was done.Calibration order status updated as completed.

4.In case of external calibration,Purchase requisition generated is converted into Purchase order buy purchasing,Test equipment issue (541) to vendor against PO and during good receipt Inspection lot will get generated,Inspection can be done before taking calibrated instrument into unrestricted stock, confirmation of external calibration operation and closing of calibration order will be done.

5.Calibration certificate are scanned and attached in equipment master using document Management system.



1.History of Test Equipment Captured from Equipment Master,Serial number history option (IE03).

2.Calibration orders list with status ( IW39 ).


Advantages of SAP Implementation:

1.No need to maintain history card,equipment history captured through Equipment master

2.Test Equipment pending for Calibration easily available (IW39)

3.Repeatation of work reduced

4.Tracebility of equipment is become easy.

5.Real time data available for Quality Control team.

6.Cost of Calibration can be captured.



I hoped above mention scenario will help you.



I'm listing the QM documents I find useful in the SCN space.  Will try to update it regularly.


Trouble shooting Notes and posts:

How to find the suitable notes/KBAs

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ QM

10 Most viewed Notes from Quality Management

Often used QM notes

5 Most viewed KBAs from Quality Management



SAP Standard QM Report

Useful Customization Transactions for SAP Quality Management (QM) Module

User Exits - SAP QM

How to make field as input,required,display only and hidden.


QM process:

Quality Control of Geochemical Samples in Mining Industry

QM processes in Oil and Gas Industry- Feedback

QM processes in Oil and Gas Industry Part 2

Cutover Stock Migration with QM approach form As-Is to To-Be system

Customer issue management Via QM

Line Rejection

Key Quality Management Configuration for Integration with Other Logistic Modules

Source Inspection Through Internet Results Recording

Vendor-end Quality Inspection Process

Quality Calculation in Vendor Evaluation (MM) - SAP

Calibration process mapping in SAP


Inspections using Multiple Specification

Inspection with batch classification



QM-PT(Quality Planning)

QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 1

QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 2

QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 3

Manufacturer Part Profile in QM

Linking MIC to Class Characteristic

SAP QM Master Inspection Characteristic Architectures

Control indicators in QPMK and storage in field QPMK-STEUERKZ

Physical Samples Management in SAP QM


QM-IM-IL (Inspection lot creation)

Recurring Inspection process with Batch

[PRODTST]Inspection lot creation: Recurring inspection

Inspection Lot Origin (Types) for Various Material Movement Types

Deactivating Inspection lot creation form MvT 107 without impacting the functionality for MvT 109

Inspection after Goods Receipt for Production Order

In-process inspection in Discrete Manufacturing

Audit Inspection (Inspection Type 07)

Inspection lot creation for return sales order

Inspection lot creation : sample size calculation

QM-IM-RR (Result recording)

Calculation of Standard deviation, Cp & Cpk in SPC

Inspection Points: Key settings and Usage

Control Charts and Process Control in SAP, a White Paper By Shashank Shekhar, Deloitte Consulting

Control charts in SAP QM


QM-IM-UD (Usage Decision)

Reversal of Usage Decision and Stock Posting of Inspection Lot

Stock Posting during UD, of Non-QI stock


QM-QC(Quality Control)

Dynamic Modification of Inspection Scope, a White Paper By Shashank Shekhar, Deloitte Consulting LLP

Basic Steps to Create Dymanic Modification Rule

Common issues during dynamic modification


QM-QN (Quality Notification)

FAQ: Assigned Objects in Quality Notification

Use of assigned object functionality in QN

User-fields in Catalog Tabs of Notifications - QQMA0008,10,11 and 12

User-Fields in QM and PM/CS Notifications : Screen-Exit QQMA0001


QM-CA(Quality Certificates)

COA Programs - Why are they being changed?



DMS- How to Store documents in a Remotely located system Via SAP

Basic steps of report generation by query with example and scenario


If you want to learn more about QM, you may want to follow the following experts:

Craig S

Natalia Machado

Nitin Jinagal


You can also find more useful documents in the QM WIKI page:

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)


If you are also interested in PP(Production Planning), have a look at the following post:

Useful documents on SCN



This FAQ provide answers to repeated asked questions regarding a new functionality: Assigned Objects in Quality Notification.

Technical Name of the Business Function: EHP 4




What is Assigned Objects in Quality Notification?


You can assign multiple objects (batches, serial numbers..) to a notification at ITEM LEVEL. This enables you better document problems or errors.

How can I activate Assigned Objects in Quality Notification?

Please make sure that you have activated the EHP4 with business function OPS_QM_NOTIFICATION and all its dependencies e.g. EA-PLM and OPS_QM_EXTENSIONS.

You would see that there should be a separate tab in Item level for the assigned objects.

Please go to customization below to add the new tab. The screen area number is 840.

QM > Quality notification>  'Overview of notification type'

During results recording does it generate a single notification for all batches/serial numbers?

No, the functionality Assigned Objects is not integrated with defect recording, this is missing functionality.



How can I select and import multiple batch numbers to the Quality Notification?

You have two options:

- You can enter ranges:

When you enter a range (such as 1 - 5), the system adopts all batches and/or serial numbers where the key is between 1 and 5 as assigned objects in the notification item.


- You can enter generic values:

When you enter a range (such as 5  * ), the system adopts all batches and/or serial numbers where the key is starts with 5 as assigned objects in the notification item.



Where can I find more information about Assigned Objects?

You can find in transaction SFW5 the prerequisites of activation of business function OPS_QM_NOTIFICATION using button 'Dependencies' and a detailed documentation and release information using the correspondent buttons next to the business function.



If you have more doubts about this topic, please comment and maybe I can help you

Hi all,


I checked all the threads, i found that there are many threads for recurring inspection, 09 inspection type, use of 09 inspection type etc. that's why i have decided to write this blog, which will help us to know how to handle Recurring Inspection. This Blog or Process I am writing as per my knowledge, forgive me if something is missing.


Step by step process is given below


1. For Recurring inspection we required to activate Batch Management. Go To " OMCT "  T-code and set batch level as per your requirement. system gives you facility to activate batches at plant level, Material level and client level for a material.


2. Activate Batch Status Management and give number range for it.


3. Create Material Master. For Example we have material master having number "81". in Plant data / Storage 1 activate batch management. Give Minimum Remaining shelf life Days (this days system will check when every you are doing GRN system will ask date of Manufacturing and with that date system will check remaining shelf life of material, and that date system will check with remaining shelf life days) also give total shelf life in same tab of Material.


4. In Quality Management tab activate inspection type 01 and 09 and give inspection interval in Days. Inspection interval is required to put material in block stock and generate Inspection lot with inspection type 09 before these many days.


5.now first time material will be purchased with normal purchase route. such as PR --- PO --- GR (at the time of GR system will ask date of manufacturing and batch will be generated as per configuration) --- Inspection lot gets generated with inspection type 01 ----- Result recording ---- Usage decision --- Unrestricted stock.


6. To check the Shelf life and batch go to MSC2N and check status of material (it will show in unrestricted) as material is under shelf life. now go to QA05 and set program in the background. or we can run QA07 every day to check deadline monitoring of Batches.


7. Now consider we have date of manufacturing as - 05.02.2015 now SLED/BBD of that material is 25.03.2015. now run QA07 front end or system will go for QA05 run in the background.  select To inspection stock at lot creation and execute it.


8. System will generate inspection stock by posting that material to Inspection stock. If you go to check status of batch you will see that batch status is showing as restricted.


9. Go to QA32, put inspection type 09 and execute it. system will show lot created with 09 inspection type. Go for Result recording and UD. at the time of UD if you find that we can extend useful life of material then edit date in Inspection lot and save it.


10. System will calculate next inspection date and we can see batch status as Unrestricted.



These are the steps for Recurring inspection.







This blog is about Frequently Asked Questions in Quality Management and aims to collect the main information of our threads in QM and publish it in one single document, so the information can be easily find and people can search for a specific subject.

This document will be updated when new important threads appears.

If you have a suggestion of a good thread that are out of the list please give some feedback and I can add it here.



Usage Decision

reversal of Usage decision

Inspection lot have a status of Usage Decision, yet there is no UD code visible in the inspection lot

how to restrict the usage decision

Usage decision with retroactive date or manual

Automatic Usage Descision after Result Recording.

Quality Notification

Work flow through in Quality notification

Customer field in QM11 transaction

FM or BAPI For task creation in quality notification

QM Notification: defect quantity not updated correctly

Customer screen area of quality notification

Dynamic Modification Rule

(Inspection Lot) Dynamic Modification Rule for Production Order

Dynamic Rule at Charateristic Level

DMR & Annual Inspection

How to Implement Dynamic Modification Rule for Material & multiple vendor Combination

Inspection Lot

Cancelled Inspection Lots can be reverte the system status

Create Inspection lot with QI stock

QA32 No inspection plan could be found

Inspection lot QM CRTD

Inspection Lot - Change Batch

Remove MIC from particular Inspection lot

Inspection lot creation time

Inspection Plan

CWBQM to remove MIC from Inspection plan

CWBQM - to change mass IP

Assign Inspection lot to lab technicians

LSMW - Inspection Plan Upload - Direct Input Method

QA32 No inspection plan could be found ...again?

Set up multiple inspection plans for one product and assign to different customer.

Result Recording

Colletive Result recording and Usage Decision

Change Result Recording after digital signature done

SMS alert to vendor about result recording

Long Text Issue

Results cannot be entered

Calculated Characteristics

Failing to do results recording

Smaller than, greater than limits

Stock Posting

Blocking of Stock Posting after doing Usage Decision

QI Stock in MD04

Stock inconsistency between MM and QM

Stock posting from "unrestricted usage" to "Quality inspection" stock

Quality Certificate

Vendor's Quality certificate recording for incoming material

SAP Quality Certificate for Procurement


Batch status at recurring insp lot creation

Batch field disappearing

Quality Info Record

using QI06

Sampling Procedure

Sampling Scheme

Sampling scheme

Physical sample

Physical sample

sample drawing procedure - Auto sample calculation.

Calibration Inspection

Inspection Lot For Calibration Order in CRTD status

Test Equipment Tracking

Stability Study

EHP 5 Vs EHP4 for stability study

Stability Study

Master DataQM Different Inspection types with the same Inspection Origin
Multiple Specification

Multiple specification in recipe

Multiple Specifications in QM

Digital SignatureDigital Signature in In-Process Inspection

Unable to create an FMEA object using a template, with copy actions indicator selected

FMEA and Control Plan creation SAP

Hello everyone


I was thinking that there are some QM statistics that may be of your interest, so I decided to make this blog post to show you KBAs (Knowledge Base Articles) View Count.

My idea is to make two rankings, Most viewed from Year and Most viewed from Month.

But, what is these rankings for?

I believe that if any ranked KBA did not work for you, you can bring the solution that resolved your problem.


If you guys like this idea, I can monthly update the ranking (if there are changes). Please let me know



5 Most viewed KBAs from 2015*

175 Views - 1705428-  Error message IM254 'Invalid object number (status management)' or IM258 'Object does not exist (status management)' in transaction QM02

147 Views - 1911886 - Transaction code QS41 and QS51 ask transport request

136 Views - 1705378 - Dump SAPSQL_ARRAY_INSERT_DUPREC in result recording for an inspection lot when using the BAPI BAPI_INSPOPER_RECORDRESULTS

96 Views - 1649612 - Error Message M7021 "Deficit of SL Stock in quality inspection" while canceling the goods receipt  for a quality managed material

94 Views - 1680949 - Customizing or SAP application menu for the "Copy Inspection Results" function is missing

*Until 13.08.2015


5 Most viewed KBAs from 2014*


229 Views - 2011512 - Dump SAPSQL_ARRAY_INSERT_DUPREC in program SAPLCOVB

209 Views - 1911886 - Transaction code QS41 and QS51 ask transport request

181 Views - 1705428-  Error message IM254 'Invalid object number (status management)' or IM258 'Object does not exist (status management)' in transaction QM02

178 Views - 1705378 - Dump SAPSQL_ARRAY_INSERT_DUPREC in result recording for an inspection lot when using the BAPI BAPI_INSPOPER_RECORDRESULTS

135 Views - 1959957 - Usage decision result is not transferred to classification system


*Until 29.12.2014



5 Most viewed KBAs from July 2015

20 Views - 1961923 - Inspection lot can't be archived because of status ORRQ

14 Views - 1705428-  Error message IM254 'Invalid object number (status management)' or IM258 'Object does not exist (status management)' in transaction QM02

13 Views - 2068196 - QA495 - Stock Transfer

13 Views - 1911886 - Transaction code QS41 and QS51 ask transport request

13 Views - 1680949 - Customizing or SAP application menu for the "Copy Inspection Results" function is missing

13 Views - 1649612 - Error message M7021 "Deficit of SL Stock in quality inspection" while canceling the goods receipt for a qualitiy managed material


This kind of surprised me! And you, do you use these KBAs a lot in your projects, implementations or daily work?

I'm waiting for your opinion


Natália Machado

QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 3


Previous Blogs:


QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 1


QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 2


GC’s and MIC’s  - Linking


So now you have gone through with the client and you have a list of General Characteristics (GC’s) that you need along with the descriptions, UOM’s and decimal places. So what’s next for this master data? I hate to say “that depends” but yes.. it does..


Before we link the GC’s up with a master inspection characteristic (MIC) we need to determine spec ranges or values for the test.  My suggestion is that regardless of whatever design you ultimately decide on, you should at this point determine the maximum ranges you intend to allow for each test.  This is NOT a spec range even though that term is utilized by many.  These values should be the minimum and maximum values that the test can theoretically have. 


Tests measured in percentages are the easiest ones here.  You normally won’t ever report anything below zero or anything above 100. Yes, there are exceptions.  Going above 100% for a measured test is usually pretty rare but it happens.  Some other tests may exceed 100% but these are often calculated tests that involve measuring some type of change.  In any case, you want to establish the highest upper limit and lowest lower limit. These may or may not be similar to what SAP calls an upper or lower plausibility limit which is maintained in the MIC.  Often times however, the plausibility limits may be set to even narrower ranges at times.


For our examples here I will use a percent test and a PPM test.  We will stick pretty much to standard tests for now.  We’ll use 0 – 100% and 0 – 10,000 for ppm. Why 10,000 you say?  Just because in this case.  In reality the people responsible for testing will know what is reasonable.  Just because a test can have a large value doesn’t mean we need to allow it.  Our goal is to reduce errors at every step possible and minimize potential errors that could impact the customer. 


If a customer has a ppm test where they have never, ever, recorded a result over 500 ppm, you might set the upper range to 500.  Even though theoretically a result of 6000 ppm is physically possible. 


A quantitative characteristic will either be a one-sided or two-sided spec.  In a one-sided spec the value will be written as <= 100.0 or >= 100.0.  A two sided spec as 93.0 – 95.0.  Make sure you include spaces between the operand and the values. A key point to keep in mind is that even though SAP allows you to enter  < and > signs they are not honored when linked to a MIC.    SAP will interpret a < as <= and a > as a >= in the MIC.  So if you really want < 100.0, you must enter <= 99.9 so that in the MIC, 100.0 will be valuated as out of spec.

This can cause various problems when using decimals or rounding and in how values are reported.  For more info on this you can check out this SCN discussion: http://scn.sap.com/thread/3170725.


When creating the general characteristic, the unit of measure (UOM), total characters, and number of decimal points must be provided.  The decimal point is a character and must be included in the count of characters.  100.0 would be counted as having 5 characters and one decimal space.


For our two characteristics we set up as follows.







Spec Range


Iron, ppm




<= 10000


Assay, %




0 – 100.0


We are now ready to create our general characteristics.   The above info is all you really need to create the general characteristics.  If you are building a spreadsheet for data loading you will need a Data Type field and other fields.  This isn’t a blog about data loading but is primarily about specifications so I’m not going to cover all the fields.  But if you are consulting, some of the fields you should understand and can be valuable to a client are:


Chars Group

Groups characteristics

Often done when multiple businesses share a client.  In which case it often relates to authorization group.

  1. Auth. Group

Limits editors for GC


Interval vals allowed

Allows range to be used

Primarily for one-sided specs.  Can be used for two-sided to put in a lowest detectable level value.

Negative Vals Allowed

Allows values < zero


Single Value

Default for GC’s.

MUST be used for all characteristics you want to link to MIC’s.

Entry required

Value must be recorded

Not normally used when linking to MIC’s

  1. Exp. Display

Allows entry and display in scientific notation

Not often used in most places





On the values screen.. DO NOT click on “additional values” on this screen.

Enter in the range you wish to allow for the test.  For the tests above, this would be <= 10000 and 0 – 100.0.


After making sure the characteristic is released, the new characteristic can be saved.


Qualitative characteristics might be discussed in a different blog since the goal of these blogs is to discuss options for handling spec ranges.  Since qualitative characteristics have no ranges and work by using catalogs, there can be no specs by material or customer.  So they really aren’t relevant to these discussions.


We should now have two general characteristics created.  The next blog will discuss setting up the MIC.

Foe below result achieved see calculation of how Mean Value, Standard deviation, Cp & Cpk is calculated in standard SAP


SPC calculation 1.jpg

See below result of Mean Value, Standard deviation, Cp & Cpk is calculated in standard SAP


SPC calculation 2.jpg

From above screen I have taken below reading


SPC calculation 3.jpg

1. Calculation of Mean value


So Mean Value,    = (Sum of Recorded Result) / No. of Record


SPC calculation 4.jpg

          Mean Value     = 38.667                       



SPC calculation 5.jpg                 

SPC calculation 6.jpg                     

The mean (38.667) is closer to one of them than to the other, leading to a Cpk factor (0.17) that is lower than the Cp value (0.22). This implies that the LSL is more difficult to achieve than the USL. Non-conformities exist at both ends of the histogram.




Nitin Jinagal

My journey with SAP

Posted by Nitin Jinagal Nov 19, 2013

SAP:  System, application, products in data processing. It took me a while before I could actually remember the abbreviation.

What is SAP? What does it stand for?? Why do people use this?? Ain't the legacy system, MS Office, Outlook cool enough???


All these questions kept haunting me till I actually started working with SAP. I started with QM module as an end user, who's been instructed to carry out few transactions with limited access and who always got to look up to power users & core users, people in power with statements like 'this belongs to system settings and you can't do that', 'Come to me if you have a problem', 'Oh.. what did you do. This would crumble the system' and blah blah.....


Finally, I got an implementation project for SAP upgrade. I was chosen as module lead.


My feelings then,

WoW!! I'm a core user now (the powerful one ). Now I do have all the authorizations, access everything. But wait.. I still do not know how to use them


No issues , I got to play a bit around. I started with very basics. I had As-Is vs To-Be documentation, Integration sessions and Master data followed by testing, defect, re testing, defect, re re testing, defect.... n testing, defect.... Gosh!!


At this point, I used to think 'Now I know all the TCodes, I can prepare master data, I can modify master data. I can decide what value would the system take for a characteristic. I do know QM But this was the time for a twist.


My consultant used to tell me, why don't you drop this requirement. I used to tell him, why don't you simply accept that you don't know how to map this. Then he came up with a new word: RICEWF . Oops, what's that !!

My theory about the QM learning shattered into millions pieces. System, application, product was much easier than Reports, Interfaces, Conversions, Enhancements, Workflow, Forms


Anyway, I got to move further. Z development and then testing, defect, re testing, defect. Modifications done in program, testing & defect gone, but new defect came up, re testing & defect


I somehow learnt to live with this RICEWF thing and my life was moving very happily (with endless loop of testing and defects)


Time for a bang !! Even though it wasn't a Kingkong thing but my dreams of becoming QM consultant started fading away. Security-Basis-Authorization..... another new thing for me. And the worst part again, endless loop of testing defect testing defect testing defect........!!


Finally big day comes with all nervous moments. Go- live. In fact successful go- live .

Suddenly, I found all the statements ('this belongs to system settings and you can't do that', 'Come to me if you have a problem', 'Oh.. what did you do. This would crumble the system' and blah blah..... ) surrounding me. Did I fell into the same shoes or earlier power men were correct, I still don't know.


Never mind, I now know all the things. I know the business mapping, I know the integration part, I know the master data, I know the RICEWFs, I know the BASIS (at least SU53 ), I can instruct people for different tasks. Have I become a SAP QM consultant now, I thought YES but.


T W I S T !!!!

As soon as I started as support team for SAP, I heard about Configuration settings, SPRO .


I did not know about this. Where did this come from? We are done with Go-live and where this config part was hiding whole year. Standard answer: This is consultant job. Now you are going to become a consultant so you must know about the configuration settings.

Ahh.... I started exploring it (and still exploring). Before this moment, I had not used QM beyond our business scenarios.


Exploring further, I landed up on SCN..


What do I find here?  I find several requirements needed to be mapped in different ways, even though they could be similar. I find how a feature can be used in different business cycle. I find the basic concepts which I had never even thought of. I find people struggling to accept the change management. I see people looking around for a solution, SAP just does not recommend. I have found lot of things, I have known lot of things.... So, Have I become a QM consultant?


I guess not. I believe SAP is an ocean & I have got only a drop yet. And this journey is long, very long... So much to learn, so much to explore.

Long journey, challenging journey yet interesting !!!


I'm sure you guys would definitely agree to what I have said.

This Blog gives the various Inspection Types applicable for the different Material Movement Types broadly used in day to day transactions.


Types of Inspection

  • There are both Stock & Non-stock relevant Inspection types. Stock relevant Inspection has posting to be done along with the Usage Decision. Ex: Inspection Types - 01, 04, 05, 08. Whereas, for Non-stock relevant inspections, only usage decision is applicable. Ex: Inspection Types - 02, 06.


Multiple Inspection Types:

In case of multiple inspection types assigned to the Material from same Inspection Lot Origin, then the system chooses an active inspection type during inspection lot creation based on the following order:


  1. The inspection type is determined using a special rule. It can be determined, for example, for inspection lot origin 01 from the quality information record, or for inspection lot origin 03 from the order type.
  2. If there is no special rule and the indicator "Preferred inspection type" is set, the system chooses this preferred inspection type for the corresponding inspection lot origin.
  3. If the indicator "Preferred inspection type" is not set for any of the inspection types for the inspection lot origin, the system chooses the inspection type that was assigned to the inspection lot origin in Customizing as variant 01.


Movement TypeMovement Type TextMovement indicatorInspection Lot OriginInspection Lot Origin Text
101GR goods receiptGoods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt
101GR goods receiptGoods movement for production order04Goods Receipt from Production
101GR goods receiptGoods movement for purchase order08Stock Transfer
103GR into blocked stckGoods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt
105GR from blocked stckGoods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt
123RE rtrn vendor rev.Goods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt
123RE rtrn vendor rev.Goods movement for production order04Goods Receipt from Production
123RE rtrn vendor rev.Goods movement for purchase order08Stock Transfer
125GR rtn blkd stck revGoods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt
131Goods ReceiptGoods movement for production order04Goods Receipt from Production
162GR rtrns reversalGoods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt
162GR rtrns reversalGoods movement for purchase order04Goods Receipt from Production
201GI for cost centerGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
202RE for cost centerGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
221GI for projectGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
222RE for projectGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
231GI for sales orderGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
232RE for sales orderGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
241GI for assetGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
242RE for assetGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
251GI for salesGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
252RE for salesGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
261GI for orderGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
261GI for orderGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
262RE for orderGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
262RE for orderGoods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
281GI for networkGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
281GI for networkGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
282RE for networkGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
282RE for networkGoods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
291GI all acc. assigmtsGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
292RE all acct assigmtsGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
301TF trfr plnt to plntGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
302TR trfr plnt to plntGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
303TF rem.fm stor.to plGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
303TF rem.fm stor.to plGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
305TF pl.in stor.in pl.Goods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
305TF pl.in stor.in pl.Goods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
309TF tfr ps.mat.to matGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
310TR tfr ps.mat.to matGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
311TF trfr within plantGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
312TR transfer in plantGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
315TF pl.in str.in SLocGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
322TR quality to unr.Goods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
332RE to sampling QIGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
349TF blocked to QIGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
351TF to stck in trans.Goods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
411TF SLoc to SLocGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
412TR SLoc to SLocGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
413TF SLoc to sls orderGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
414TR SLoc to sls orderGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
415TF SLoc to projectGoods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
416TR SLoc to proj.Goods movement w/o reference08Stock Transfer
451GI returnsGoods movement w/o reference06Return from Customers
452RE returns reversalGoods movement w/o reference02Goods Issue
453TP returns to ownGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
457TP Returns to own QIGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
501Receipt w/o POGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
503Receipt to QIGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
511Delivery W/o ChargeGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
521Receipt w/o orderGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
523Rcpt QI w/o prOrderGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
531Receipt by-productGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
552RE scrappingGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
554RE scrapping QIGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
561Initial stock entryGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
563Init. entrStBals: QIGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
571Receipt assemblyGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
573Rcpt QI assemblyGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
575Rcpt blckd assmblyGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
581Rcpt by-prod networkGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
601GD goods issue:delvyGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
602RE goods deliv. rev.Goods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
603TF rem.fm stor.to plGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
605Goods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
641TF to stck in trans.Goods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
643TF to cross companyGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
645TF cross companyGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
647TF to stck in trans.Goods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
651GD ret.del.  returnsGoods movement for delivery note06Return from Customers
653GD returns unrestr.Goods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
655GD returns QIGoods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
661GI returns to vendorGoods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
662RE ret. to vdr revrsGoods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
671TR to stck in trans.Goods movement for delivery note05Other Goods Receipt
672TF to stck in trans.Goods movement for delivery note02Goods Issue
703GR phys.inv: QIGoods movement w/o reference05Other Goods Receipt
871Goods movement for purchase order01Goods Receipt

1.     Introduction

This Blog describes the Quality Control of Geochemical Samples in Mining Industry and the terminology related. Very often in the mining industry, there are various physical, chemical, acid and other tests that are to be conducted to assess the quality of the metal ores. Due to the volatile nature of the various materials such Iron Ore, Phosphorus Ore etc.,, their properties needs to be checked frequently. For example, percentage of moisture, compressive strength, density, Percentage of Oxides, porosity, Loss on Ignition, Metal % etc., change with the time.

2.     Terminology Used in Quality Analysis (Mining Industry)


2.1. Point of Analysis

  • Origin Analysis:

Quality results are checked at the Mining site

  • Destination Analysis:

Quality results are checked at the Destination/Customer site

  • Negotiation:

Quality results are sometimes decided by negotiating between Mining Company & Customer. (Depends on the Agreements between two parties)

2.2. Parties conducting the Analysis

  • Client:

Quality results are checked by the Mining Company

  • Independent:

Quality results are checked by the Independent Vendor (decided by both Mining Company & Customer)

  • Umpire:

Quality results are checked by the Third Party

  • Customer:

Quality results are checked by the Customer

2.3. Geographical Location/Testing Laboratory


  • Location/Laboratory:

Analysis conducted at a particular geographical place or location. For example, Laboratory, Oman, New York etc.,

3.     Mining Industry Requirement

As the quality parameter values vary frequently, many a times, the quality analysis is carried out is differentiated based on the Geographical location, Time & the party conducting the tests. Due to these reasons, many results are recorded for the same characteristic. In order to accommodate these requirements in SAP Quality Management module, the Origin of Results Data can be used. This concept avoids creating multiple characteristics for the same quality parameter that is to be checked. Moreover, in Mining Industry, the invoicing and billing depends on quality of the mining material. For example, for the Material Ore with less moisture percentage is invoiced with less cost when compared to the Material Ore with more moisture percentage. This can be addressed using the Origin of Results Data.

4.     Significance of Origin of Results Data

The results origin entry defines the source of information. This can be assigned to the characteristic in the Inspection Plan or in the Results recording screen. As long as the inspection characteristic has the status "in process", results origin during results recording can be specified. 

5.     Configuration Required in SAP

Navigation Path: SPRO > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Results Recording > Define Origins of Results Data 1.jpg2.jpg3.jpg

Origin of Results DataShort Text
Z1Origin - Client Analysis
Z2Origin - Independent Analysis
Z3Origin - Umpire Analysis
Z4Origin - Customer Analysis
Z5Destination - Client Analysis
Z6Destination - Independent Analysis
Z7Destination - Umpire Analysis
Z8Destination - Customer Analysis
Z9Negotiated Client and Customer Analysis
ZAOman Main Laboratory
ZBOman Supporting Laboratory
ZCOman External Laboratory


5.1. Detailed Explanation of Configured values


  • In the Origin of Results data configured, Z1 to Z8 are analysis values with reference to the Parties conducting the Test (Client/Independent/Umpire/Customer) and the Point of Analysis (Origin/Destination)
  • Z9 refers to the negotiated value between Client and the Customer
  • ZA to ZB are the values with reference to Geographical location (Oman Lab)
  • In addition to the description of the results origin, data source for the inspection results also can be selected in the configuration


6.     SAP Scenario

Below is the scenario demonstrated for usage of Origin of Results Data.

6.1. Master Data

6.1.1.     Master Inspection Characteristic


  • Create Master Inspection Characteristic Master using Transaction code QS21
  • Iron content (Fe) is considered in the below example with Quantitative characteristic


6.1.2.     Inspection Plan – Result of Origin assignment


  • Create Inspection Plan using Transaction code QP01.


  • Assign Master Inspection characteristic for the Operation.


  • Single Master Inspection characteristic (Fe) is assigned to assess the same characteristic at various ports or at different point of time etc.,


  • Select Master Inspection characteristic and Click on General Data Details


  • Assign Origin Results Data Z1- Origin - Client Analysis for the Characteristic as shown below.


  • Similarly, assign Origin Results Data Z2 - Origin - Independent Analysis for the Characteristic 20 as shown below.


  • After assigning the Origin results data for all the characteristics, save the inspection plan. Message will be displayed as below.


6.2. Transaction Steps

6.2.1. Inspection Lot creation

  • Create Inspection Lot using Transaction QA01 (Inspection Type 01 is used in the below example).
  • Enter Quantity details & assign Inspection Plan.12.jpg


6.2.2.     Results Recording

  • Record the results for the characteristic using QA02/QE51N transaction


  • In the Record Results: Characteristic Overview screen, we can observe that the result is recorded for the same characteristic with different Origin Results Data.




7.     Benefits derived with Usage of Origin of Results Data


7.1. Invoicing


Depending on the agreement between the Mining Company and the Customer/Vendor, the appropriate result can be considered for the Invoicing (out of all the values recorded for the same characteristic).

7.2. Batch Update Functionality


Minor enhancement can be done to the standard batch update functionality while taking Usage decision for the inspection lot, in order to update the batch value with one of the results recorded based on pre-configured conditions.

A continuation of a series of blogs:

Blog 1: http://scn.sap.com/community/erp/operations-qm/blog/2013/09/23/qmcharacteristicsspecificationsclassification-blog-1


QM/Characteristics/Specifications/Classification – Blog 2


GC’s and MIC’s


Ok.. lets talk about this linkage thing.  How does this work and what does it mean.  First off, lets understand the main reason this is done.  We already discussed how we have two different areas of SAP that kind of grew up separately and now need to talk to each other. But in order for that communication to happen, there has to be a common language.  With regard to the characteristics this primarily means the following three items have to be compatible:

    • - Data type (char or numeric)
    • - Unit of measure, (UOM),
    • - Decimal places


This ensures that the values transferred from the MIC are not truncated, misrepresented or other wise corrupted.


There are basically only two combinations  of characteristics that can actually be linked.


  • - A GC of Char data type that uses catalogs as the values, can be linked with a qualitative MIC
  • - A GC of numeric data type can be linked with a quantitative MIC.


You can not use GC’s with a date, time or currency data type.

You can not use GC’s that are set up for multiple values.

You can not use MIC’s with the “classed recording” control indicator clicked on.

You can not use MIC’s that only allow defects recording.


Those are the general rules.  Depending on how you use some MIC’s and what control indicators you select, you may run into trouble with trying to link them to a GC.   If you try to change control indicators on a linked MIC, you will get a pop-up box like the one below.  PLEASE click the help icon in the information box.  The help there will explain some of the reasons certain control indicators can’t be changed.


Screen Shot 2013-10-03 at 5.04.32 PM.png


Now… before we actually create and link any characteristics, from a consulting point of view we need a rationale as to exactly what is going to constitute a test.  There is no hard and fast rule for this.  I’d like to think there is, but the client is always correct.


What I try to push as a standard is that if any of the following items are not the same, it should be new GC/MIC. 

  1. Basic test method
  2. UOM
  3. Number of Decimal places (Sensitivity)


So lets take an example. A simple Assay.  A common test in many companies.  We can have the following IF there is only one way to run the test:





# Decimals


Trace FE, %




Trace FE, %




Trace FE, %




Trace FE, %




Trace FE, %




Depending on HOW the assay is run we could have multiple assays.  For instance, FE can also me determined by Mass spec and by GC-MS. 





# Decimals


Trace FE by Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by GC Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by GC Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by GC Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by GC Mass Spec, %




Trace FE by GC Mass Spec, %




If there are other testing techniques, then the list of characteristics would be expanded as appropriate.  


Consulting Note 1: Determine your list of general characteristics first, before attempting to develop your MIC’s.  It is much easier to create your MIC’s with a reference to the GC then it is to establish this link later on.  Even if you don’t plan to use all your characteristics as GC’s or batch characteristics, plan and develop your test list as if everything will be a batch characteristic. 


The holy grail is a single list of tests utilized across the entire enterprise with no duplications.  Plants and products are not to get their own unique tests because they think they are ‘unique’ or are different.   Remember, different method names and even different preparation methods are allowed in different plants.  The key would be to determine if customers, or an outside regulatory agency, would, on an analytical basis, accept the test values as interchangeable.  If they would, they are the same test.  If not, they are different tests.


You might have some tests that you expect to only set up as MIC’s because they can’t be linked to a GC.  That’s fine, but go through the same exercise for all your tests and pretend as if they will all be linked to GC’s.  Once your master list is established, you just identify these as not needing GC’s.  But your descriptions, decimal points, UOM’s etc. will still all be needed to set up the MIC. 


Conversely, you might have GC’s that won’t need MIC’s.


There is no real hard and fast rule..  But you want to attempt to avoid duplication of what is basically the same test.  This is simply a guideline and based on my past experience.


Consulting Note 2: Some UOM’s are directly convertible.    For instance, %, PPM, PPB and PPT can all be converted by SAP. Laboratories across the enterprise should standardize on what UOM they wish to record against in the laboratory and internally as a business for a given test.  If the data needs to be reported in different UOM’s, this can be done directly in the COA profile.  I.e. you record in % but report to certain customers in PPM’s.  If you do this, you may also need to consider a custom text description for the characteristic within the COA profile. You are installing a computer system, maximize it's usage!


Consulting Note 3:  Some tests can easily be calculated from others.  A good example are tests in the chemical industry called “Screens”. These tests are primarily for evaluating particle sizes.  It involves using a screen(s) to pass material thru.  The amount of material left on the screen is an “ON” test while what falls through the screen is a “THRU” value.  A product may be passed thru three or more screens.  A THRU value can be calculated as 100% minus the ON %.  And of course the ON % can be calculated as 100% minus the THRU % value.  Some customers want the “ON” value reported to them on the COA, while others want the “THRU” value reported.  Don't make your lab techs record virtually the same test value multiple times in an inspection lot!!!


Plan to set up the system so that all laboratory personnel record one or the other.   In the above example get the technicians in the lab trained to do all THRU measurements.  Then all the “ON” tests are placed as calculated characteristics at the end of the inspection lot.  Don’t make them record both because some customers want the ON value while others want the THRU value.  And don't have them record two THRU values and one ON value.   Pick one or the other for the techs to record.   All of course will all need to be set up as GC’s and MIC’s.  These are just a few examples.  I know there are other series of tests like this.


The idea is to get the labs to be consistent so that everyone records things the same way in all plants with NO duplication of recording.


This helps in training and in reducing lab errors.


Consulting Note 4: Try to establish the list of characteristics as if there were no customers.  Stick to what  you would have the lab testing your products for if you were just bringing the product to market with no customers.


There really should be NO customer specific tests. They are simply tests.  You might choose to run a test on a product for a customer, but during the setup and design of your characteristics it should not be designated as such unless the test is globally known as the “ACME WETTING TEST”.  (yes.. I totally made that up.)  These types of tests are usually application specific tests.  I.e. they are unique to the customers end use of the product, for example, time for a particular paint formulation to dry on a customers proprietary substrate material.


You will have tests, mandated by customers, that must be set up and run as part of a material's standard inspection approval process.  Maybe because that material is only sold to one customer.  But don't make all the tests on the product as customer specific tests.  Only a handful will truly be application or customer specific.  Set them up simply as another test.  If you scan down your final list of GC's and MIC's to create, and in the test descriptions, you constantly see customer names cropping up, you're probably headed for a difficult implementation regardless of what final design you settle on.


Ok.. probably a good stopping point here.


I expect my next blog will deal with the general characteristics and their interaction with the MIC’s when they are linked.


Please add comments and feel free to add any "war stories".  I love to hear of good and bad examples!!!  Especially bad!!


This blog is Copyrighted October 3, 2013 by HCS Enterprises, Inc. This blog may not be used by anyone for any commercial purposes without permission.  It may not be reproduced, in part or in its entirety, in any form, printed or digitally reproduced.  Permission is granted to individuals to maintain a copy for personal use and reference only.  It, or any part of it, is not to be used for training documents, training classes, project documentation, end-user handouts, cheat sheets, reference documents, slide presentations or any other use that may not as yet be envisioned.  Permission for use is provided to SAP under the terms and conditions agreed to by participating on the SCN website.


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