Validation and Substitution in SAP FICO
The validation and substitution tools can be used to validate and substitute data immediately upon entry.
1. During document entry only a valid combination of GL account and business area needs to be entered. This can be set as a validation in the system.
2. Providing the profit center contents using a certain combinations of expense accounts, company code and business partner. This can be set as a substitution in the system.
II. Definition and Execution of Validation and Substitution.
1. Validation- The validation function checks the entered values and value intervals. When data are entered in the system, the rule manager validates the data according to the validation rules. Since data are validated before they are actually posted, only validated data is accepted.
2. Substitution- In Substitution, the values entered into the SAP system are validated according to a prerequisite defined by the user. If the prerequisite is met the system replaces the value entered with other values.
Validation and Substitution in the system is carried in the following manner:
Application (Where?) Callup point (When?) Definition (What?) Allocation (Organizational Unit?) Activation (Active?)
Each of the above steps will be explained as below:
A). Decide upon the area of application - Application area is where the validation or substitution rule is used.
The following application areas use validations and substitutions:
FI financial accounting,
CO cost accounting,
AM asset accounting,
GL special purpose ledger,
PS project system,
RE real estate,
PC profit center accounting,
Each application defines the structures available and releases its fields for substitution.
B). Select the call up points u2013 These are specific places in an application that specify the exact location where a validation or substitution occurs.
Three call up points have been provided for FI
1. Document header - Validation and substitution at document header level
2. Document line item - Validation and substitution at document line item level
3. Complete document - Validation and substitution of the whole document
C). Defining validation/substitution u2013 Using operands, logical operators and comparison operators, the rules for the prerequisites and checks can be defined.
D). Assignment and Activation u2013 You must assign your validation and substitution to an appropriate organization unit (e.g. company code for FI).A validation/substitution can be valid for several company codes at the same time.
Furthermore the validation/substitution for the correct call up point must be activated.
The following degrees of activation exist for the organizational unit (e.g. company code) + call up point + substitution (or validation) combination:
1 Active for dialog and batch
2 Active except for batch input
III. Understanding validation and substitution in FICO using illustrations
A). Validation in accounting documents
IMG Path- SAP Reference IMG* Financial Accounting * General Ledger Accounting * Business Transaction * GL account posting * Carry out and check document setting* Validation in accounting document
Management has decided that car rent paid shall not exceed 10000 USD per document.
Hence the company has decided that maximum line item amount for Car Rent GL a/c will be less than USD 1000.
Validation rule for this will be set at the line item level as follows:
1. Using transaction OB28, go to u201CChange view validation of accounting documentsu201D
Select the company code in which validation rule is to be set or if new company code is to be added then select the u201CNew Entryu201D tab.
2. Double click on the selected company code
3. Select the Call Up Point at which the validation is to be set.
4. Since the rent expense amount should not exceed USD 1000, we will set the validation rule at the document line item level.
5. Select the arrow for line item and select the validation step relevant to your company code
6. Select the u201CInsert stepu201D tab for creation of new validation rule. A new step 008 will get added up. Now click on Prerequisite
7. As shown above there are three table structure given.
8. We have to select that table which contains the field for which validation rule needs to be set.
We need GL account and amount field which are present in the table structure BSEG.
9. Double click on BSEG and select the field.
Double click on the BSEG-HKONT field and then u201C=u201D sign followed by clicking the constant and then enter the GL A/c number therein.
10. Click on the u201CChecku201D tab and select the WRBTR field with respect to line item amount in table BSEG and then specify the condition u201CAmount<=10000
11. Now select the u201CMessageu201D and enter the message which should be displayed in case the document amount exceeds USD 1000.
Save the above created validation rule and post a document with amount greater than amount USD1000.
An error message specified will be displayed because of the validation defined.
In a similar way validation can be defined at Document Header Level and at the overall document level.
B). Substitution in accounting documents
IMG Path: IMG* Financial Accounting * General Ledger Accounting * Business Transactions * GL Account Posting * Carry out and check document settings * Substitution in Accounting Documents
Case: Accounting department wants that for a combination of GL a/c 260671000 and transaction code FB60 (Vendor Invoices), profit center should be 1241 only.
Hence using substitution profit center can be substituted for the specified combination.
1. Using transaction OBBH, go to u201CSubstitution in Accounting Documentsu201D
2. Select the company code in which validation rule is to be set or if new company code is to be added then select the u201CNew Entryu201D tab.
3. In general substitution rule is present at document header, line item and at complete document level.
4. Since in this case the GL account and transaction code combination is needed, hence we will select the line item level and then select the down arrow for it.
5. User can create his own substitution or can add a step in the already existing substitution.
6. Create a new substitution step by clicking on the u201CInsert Tabu201D button.
7. Select the field to be substituted as shown below:
8. Give the description and select the table structure from which the field needs to be specified in prerequisite.
9. Currently we need to specify GL account (BSEG-HKONT) and transaction code (SYST-TCODE) and select the AND operator since both the conditions are needed to be fulfilled.
10. Specify the profit center in the substitutions tab
11. Remember to activate by selecting u201C1u201D as activation level.
12. Save the substitution rule and post an entry using transaction FB60 and GL a/c 260671000, and the profit center 1241 will get automatically substituted.
In this manner, validation and substitution rules can be set up with respect to business transactional requirements.
Validation and substitution are useful in every aspect whether it is GL accounting or cost accounting.
Business rules can be set up at line item level, header level or at the whole of FI document level making it one of the most useful tools with SAP consultants.
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