3 Replies Latest reply: Mar 19, 2008 4:48 AM by Rakesh Singh Chauhan RSS

Why Kernel is required in SAP ?

Sreenivasan Kathirvel
Currently Being Moderated



Please let me know the meaning of kernel and why it is required for installing SAP and what are all the benefits ?


Kindly help me regarding this......

  • Re: Why Kernel is required in SAP ?
    Prashant Pasala
    Currently Being Moderated



    SAP Kernel is the core of the application. Like all other applications the Kernel contains the executable files (.EXE files for stating various processes in SAP.


    Thats th ereason why when a Kernel upgrade is done it means new versions of the various EXE files replace the older versions.


    With regards to advantages, it is an appropriate question in this context since the Kernel is a must (.EXE)




  • Re: Why Kernel is required in SAP ?
    Nick Loy
    Currently Being Moderated



    Kernel is the heart of operating system. It contains those files which are used to run every event in SAP. ex: starting database, shutdowns of database, starting sap, shutdown of sap, saposcol, to uncar the sap files etc......iat contains more than 120 exe files.




    Nick Loy

  • Re: Why Kernel is required in SAP ?
    Rakesh Singh Chauhan
    Currently Being Moderated

    Dear Cheenu,


    What is the kernel of an SAP system?

    An ABAP or Java-based SAP system runs on top of the SAP Web Application Server. This software serves as an abstraction layer between the underlying operating system and database system to the ABAP or Java applications. The applications then are coded and run in an OS and DB-independent manner. The execution environment of the applications is often referred to as a Runtime system.


    Thus, the kernel of an SAP system consists of all native programs and dynamic libraries that are required for launching the Runtime, executing ABAP or Java codes, communicating with the outside world of the application server like OS, DB and network. These native binaries can be categorized through different aspects:


    • DB-dependent vs. DB-independent: While all native binaries are OS-specific, they can be grouped in either database-dependent or independent manner. Mostly there are numerous database management systems available for a particular Operating System. The DB-dependent part -- which is small in size -- presents the abstraction layer to the particular database system and the DB-independent part -- which makes up the vast majority of all native codes -- presents the abstraction layer to the rest of the outside world.


    *Unicode vs. Non-Unicode: Depending on users' requirement, an SAP system supports data encoding either as Unicode or as non-Unicode. Since the processing of Unicode data and non-Unicode data respectively are slightly different, the kernel binaries are compiled accordingly.


    • Primary vs. subsidiary: Some of the kernel binaries are permanently loaded in the memory when the system is running. We call them primary. In other words, without the primary codes, the system is not functioning. Contrary to the primary programs, the subsidiary programs provide tools and services which are used occasionally, no matter whether the system is running or not, in terms of OS and DB abstraction.


    How to get the kernel patches?


    You can download the latest versions of the kernel patches from the SAP Service Marketplace (http://service.sap.com), either as part of an SP Stack or separately. However, you have to take following facts into account:


    • What operating systems is your system running on? In some (although rare) cases, you need multiple variants of the kernel patches, because it's possible to install a SAP system in a cluster with different operating systems.


    *Do you need a Unicode or non-Unicode kernel, or both of them? This question is especially relevant, if the system is ABAP-based. Java-based systems are always Unicode systems. A Double-Stack system runs both an ABAP and a Java engine, while the ABAP part runs with a non-Unicode kernel.


    Once these details have been determined, you can go on with selecting the appropriate packages on the SAP Service Marketplace. There are two packaged files for each OS-DB-combination, SAPEXE.SAR for the DB-independent part and SAPEXEDB.SAR for DB-dependent part. As mentioned, the first file is much larger than the latter one. These two packages together consist of updates of all kernel binaries needed to patch the system kernel to level in required.


    .SAR files are an SAP-specific archive format. You can extract this format with the tool SAPCAR which in turn is one of the kernel programs. Normally, the existing SAPCAR tool should be able to open the newer kernel package .SAR files with the existing SAPCAR. Occasionally it happens that you cannot open the newer .SAR files with the older SAPCAR, because the format has been enhanced. In this case, you can download SAPCAR alone from the SAP Service Marketplace. Other standalone tools are also available; SAPCPE which we will deal with in more detail later.


    Hope this helps you.




  • Re: Why Kernel is required in SAP ?
    Lesley Sam
    Currently Being Moderated

    The steps to do kernel upgrade are listed below.


    1)     Execute the command disp+work -v to get the present kernel version


    2)     Check with the T Code SM51 to Check the R/3 SYSTEM->STATUS to get the present kernel level


    3)     Download the latest kernel patch from SMP


            There are 2 files to be downloaded from SMP:

            a) Database Independent Files

                This is of the nomenclature SAPEXE_<Patch level>-<release date>.SAR

            b) Database Dependent files

                This is of the nomenclature SAPEXEDB_<Patch level>-<release date>.SAR


    4)     Uncar the .SAR files

            Uncar the files using the SAPCAR utility and store it in a directory. SAPCAR is a program executable located in the  KERNEL folder itself. If SAPCAR is not working, then copy the executable from the kernel folder to the location where the      .SAR files are located.

            SAPCAR -xvf <filename.SAR>


    5)     Stop the J2EE Engine and the SAP OS Collector

            saposcol u2013k

            SAPOSCOL service should be stopped because it also will get overwritten by the new file.


    6)     Backup the present Kernel directory

            Copy the present kernel folder safely. This is important because the activity is completely reversible and switching  over  to the old kernel will be possible.


    7)      Copy the new kernel files to the RUN folder location

             Copy the files in such a manner that the RUN folder is overwritten by the new files.


             cp -R <source file > <destination>


    8)      Check the permissions of the files in the kernel directory

             chown [-R] newowner filenames

             chmod <1>permissions filename


    9)      Start the J2EE Engine and the SAP OS Collector

             saposcol u2013l


    10)     Check the latest Kernel level

            Execute the command disp+work -v to get the new kernel level.

  • Re: Why Kernel is required in SAP ?
    Nick Loy
    Currently Being Moderated
    3 Year old thread