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2 Replies Latest reply: Mar 24, 2008 11:23 AM by rish k RSS

PPT on SD process flow

Jino R
Currently Being Moderated

Hi guys am in need of help from u

am not so clear about the SD process flow

can anyone pls send me a PPT on SD process flow

to my email id:- (<REMOVED BY MODERATOR>).

thanking u in advance..




  • Re: PPT on SD process flow
    Sadhu Kishore
    Currently Being Moderated



    please refer this link





    sadhu kishore

  • Re: PPT on SD process flow
    rish k
    Currently Being Moderated

    Sales Organization   :


    Responsible for:


    •     Distribution of goods and services

    •     Negotiating Sales Conditions

    •     Product Liability and rights of recourse

    •     A sales organization is uniquely assigned to a company code

    •     Master data’s are separately maintained for a sales organization

    •     All items in the Sales and Distribution document belong to a sales organization


    Distribution Channel:


    Means through which products and services reach the customer 


    A distribution channel:

    •     Defines responsibilities

    •     Helps in achieve flexible pricing

    •     Differentiate Sales statistics




    •     A division is used to group products and services.


    •     A division represents a product line.


    Sales Area:

    A Sales area is a combination of

    •     Sales organization

    •     Distribution Channel

    •     Division


    Each Sales and distribution document is assigned exactly to one sales area.


    A sales area can belong to only  one company code.






         Sales Organization


         Distribution Channel






                     Sales Area




    Plant and Storage Location:


    •     A Plant is a location where stock is maintained


    •     Plant and storage location are used by all logistic area of R/3 System


    •     A Plant is uniquely assigned to a company code


    Shipping point:


    •     Shipping point is the highest level of organizational unit in shipping


    •     Each outbound delivery is processed by one shipping point


    •     Shipping points are assigned to a plant


    •     More than one shipping point can be assigned to a plant



    Sales and Distribution is SAP begins with establishing customer relationship and ends with invoicing for the delivery of goods or service provided to the customer .


    A Standard sales transaction has the following flow:












    The customer order management cycle begins with pre-sales activities.


    A standard order in SAP contains:


    •     Customer and material info

    •     Pricing conditions

    •     Delivery dates and quantities

    •     Shipping info

    •     Billing Info


    Inventory sourcing in SAP is taken care by


    •     Availability check


    Shipping in SAP supports


    •     Outbound delivery creation

    •     Picking

    •     Packing

    •     Post Goods Issue


    Billing in SAP supports


    •     Creating invoices for products and services


    •     Creating credit and debit memo


    •     Cancel previously posted billing documents


    •     Automatically transferring billing documents to accounting


    When a billing document is created for a sales order we


    •     Credit the sales revenue account


    •     Debit the customer receivables account


    Sales Document


    A sales document is grouped into three structures


    •     Header


    •     Item


    •     Schedule Line


    Outbound delivery


    A delivery document is grouped into two structures


    •     Header


    •     Item



    Several orders can be grouped into same outbound delivery if they have same


    •     Shipping point


    •     Delivery date


    •     Ship-to- address




    •     A transfer order is created for an outbound delivery


    •     A transfer order is created for a warehouse number







    Post Goods Issue


    When PGI is done the system


    •     Updates the quantity in inventory management and delivery requirements in materials planning


    •     Generates additional documents for accounting


    •     Adds the delivery to the billing due list


    •     Updates status in sales documents




    We can group deliveries into single billing document if the deliveries have same


    •     Billing date


    •     Payer


    •     Destination Country



    The effects of billing are


    •     Debit on the customer receivables account and credit on sales revenue account is created


    •     Sales information system


    •     Sales statistics is updated



    Master data in SAP


    SAP SD has got the following main masters:


    •     Customer master


    •     Material master


    •     Condition master


    •     Output master


    •     Customer material information master


    Customer master










    General Data                                         Sales Area Data          Company Code data


    Tab pages                                              Tab pages                                      Tab pages


    Address     Order             Accounting


    Control data                                              Shipping               Payment


    Payment terms                                          Billing               Correspondence


    Marketing                                                   Partner functions                Insurance


    Unloading points


    Export data


    Contact persons


    The chart above shows detail on three main areas of customer master and the tab pages found under each area.


    Material Master is maintained in different views and important views of sales and distribution are


    •     Basic data 1


    •     Sales Org 1


    •     Sales Org 2


    •     Sales : Gen/Plant


    •     Foreign Trade


    •     Sales text


    Sales document in Sales and distribution mainly controls:


    •     Number range


    •     Item No increment


    •     Reference mandatory


    •     Item division


    •     Read info record


    •     Document pricing procedure


    •     Incomplete messages


    •     Alternative sales documents


    •     Delivery block


    •     Billing block


    •     Immediate delivery


    •     Delivery type


    •     Billing type


    •     Proposed delivery date


    •     Lead time for delivery


    •     Proposed pricing date



    Plant determination in Sales and distribution:


    To determine the plant in an order the system checks the master in the following order:


    a)     Customer material info. record of the sold-to –party

    b)     Customer master record of the ship-to-party

    c)     Material master record of the material





    Shipping point determination


    The following rule is used in determining shipping point in a sales order   :


    Plant + Shipping condition (Sold-to-Party) + Loading group                  Shipping point






                                                          Maintained in Material master Gen: Plant data


    Route determination


    Route determined using the following rule in Sales and Distribution (SAP)


    Departure Zone of Shipping Point


    Shipping condition (Sold-to-Party)


    Transportation Group (Material master)


    Transportation Zone (Ship-to-Party)





    Delivery scheduling:


    As name denotes delivery scheduling is scheduling delivery for an order and it carries the following important dates:


    •     Material availability date

    •     Transportation planning date

    •     Loading date

    •     Goods Issue date

    •     Delivery date


    Availability Check in SAP:


    •     Availability check is carried out at item level for a plant


    •     Availability check is done on the material availability date


    •     If material availability date is in the past the forward scheduling is done, if not backward  scheduling is done.







    Item category determination in the order:


    Item category denotes the category to which the item belongs and the following rule is used for determination of item category. Item category controls the way in which item behaves in a sales document.


    Sales document type


    Item category group (Material master)


    Item usage


    Item category of higher level item




    Item category of the item




    Item category in a sales document mainly controls the following


    •     Relevance for billing of an item

    •     Billing block

    •     Pricing relevance

    •     Business data relevance item

    •     Schedule line allowed

    •     Item relevant for delivery

    •     Returns

    •     Determine cost

    •     Credit active

    •     Incompletion procedure

    •     Partner determination procedure

    •     Structure scope (relevant for bill of material explosion)

    •     Value contract material

    •     Contract release control


    Schedule line category:


    Every item which has a delivery will have a schedule line and the schedule line category is determined with the following rule:


    Item category + MRP type(Material Master)         Schedule line category


    Schedule line category mainly controls:


    •     Delivery Block

    •     Movement type

    •     Item relevant for delivery

    •     Req/Assembly

    •     Availability

    •     Product Allocation


    Copy Control:


    Copy control is normally set for


    •     Header

    •     Item

    •     Schedule line  levels


    To control copying procedure we have


    •     Data transfer routines

    •     Copying requirements

    •     Switches


    Pricing Procedure determination:


    Pricing is an important component in SAP-SD. Once an order is entered taking into consideration some major factors, the pricing procedure for the particular order is determined.


    The major factors taken into consideration for pricing procedure determination is:


    Sales area


    Customer Pricing procedure(Customer Master –Sales area data)


    Document Pricing Procedure(Sales Document Type)




    Pricing Procedure


    What are the components of pricing procedure?


    How is  that a person should work on Pricing Procedure?


    To start with first


    Define a Condition table:


    What is a condition table?

    A table where the key fields are data combinations for which messages are triggered (and offered for processing).

    For each data combination, there is a condition record in the table. The data part contains the actual message.

    As mentioned above a condition table is a table which carries key fields for picking up the prices.

    Define Access Sequences

    The access sequence is a search strategy which the SAP System uses to search for condition records valid for a condition type.

    For example, you can define for a price that the SAP System first searches for a customer-specific price and then for a price list price.


    •     If you define your own access sequences, the key should start with the letter Z since SAP reserves this letter for the standard system.

    •     Do not change access sequences contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.


    1. Check to what extent you can use the access sequences contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.

    2. Create new access sequences by copying a similar access sequence and changing it according to your needs. Specify an alphanumeric key which may have up to 4 digits and a textual description.

    3. Maintain the accesses for the access sequence by specifying the condition tables in the desired sequence. With the sequence, you define the priority of the accesses. You can display combinations of key fields using possible entries.

    4. Generating the accesses is no longer necessary as of 3.0, as this is carried out automatically. You can generate the accesses manually, if required, by choosing "Utilities".


    In pricing, you use a customer-material discount. The condition records you create are based on customer data from the document header and material data from each document item. The discount is only valid for 2% of your customers, however. Normally, this would mean that the system would needlessly search through every available item for 98% of your customers. In this case, pre step would improve system performance.

    Define Condition Type

    A characteristic of a condition. For example, in pricing, different condition types are used to distinguish between a discount that refers to a net price and a discount that refers to a gross price.

    Price elements are represented in the SAP system by condition types. Price elements can be, for example, prices, surcharges, discounts, taxes or, freight, and are stored in the system in condition records.

    You can, for example, define whether a discount is calculated as a percentage or a fixed amount using the condition type.

    You specify an access sequence in every condition type. Thus, you define which fields the SAP system checks when searching for a valid condition record.


    •     The pricing procedure groups all condition types together which the SAP system is to automatically take into account during pricing for a business transaction (see the section "Define and assign pricing procedures").

    Remember that you can only specify manually in a document those condition types which are contained in the pricing procedure.

    •     You can change the outcome of pricing in the sales document manually. You can limit options for changing a condition type in this IMG step.


    •     If you define your own condition types, the key should start with the letter Z since SAP reserves these letters for that purpose in the standard system.

    •     Do not change the condition types which are contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.


    1. Check to what extent you can use the condition types contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.

    2. Create new condition types by copying a similar conditions type and changing it according to your requirements. One reason for creating a new condition type is you may require a calculation rule for a discount which is not available in the standard system.

    Specify an alphanumeric key which can have up to 4 digits, and a textual description.

    Specify an access sequence for the condition types. You do not need to specify an access sequence for header conditions.

    3. Maintain the detail screen of the condition type.

    You can also assign a reference condition type if the condition types you are working with are similar. Then you will only have to maintain condition records for the reference condition type.

    In addition, you can define the upper and lower limits for the value of a condition at condition type level. This way, you limit the amounts or the scale values in the corresponding condition records.

    Define Pricing Procedures

    The pricing procedure defines the conditions permitted for a document and the sequence in which the system takes these conditions into account during pricing.

    A standard pricing procedure is defined in the standard SAP system.  It contains conditions most commonly used.  These include material prices, discounts, and surcharges, such as freight, or tax.

    SAP Recommendation

    •     Define your own pricing procedures which contain only those condition types which you use. Otherwise, the system makes un neccessary accesses to conditions.

    •     Do not change the pricing procedures contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.


    1. Create new pricing procedures by copying a similar pricing procedure.

    o     Specify a key with up to 6 characters and a description.

    o     For a procedure, specify the condition types in the sequence of their usage.

    Maintain the lines of the pricing procedure

    2. Afterwards define the customer determination procedures for determining the procedure.

    3. Define the document pricing procedures for determining the procedure.

    4. Assign the procedure to the sales document types and billing types.

    5. To determine the procedure, define the allowed combinations of:

    o     Sales area

    o     Customer pricing  procedure

    o     Document pricing procedure

    o     Pricing procedure



    The basis for shipping is delivery.


    Delivery document controls the following in deliveries


    •     Number range

    •     Item no increment

    •     Storage location rule

    •     Route determination

    •     Text determination

    •     Delivery split

    •     Gen. packing material / item

    •     Order required


    Delivery item category controls:

    •     Check min delivery

    •     Availability check

    •     Relevant for picking

    •     Storage location required

    •     Determine storage location

    •     Automatic batch determination

    •     Text determination procedure



    Billing is the last phase in the SD process .Billing is the phase where the major integration of SD and FI Module happens.


    Billing document has got the following structure:


    •     Header


    •     Item


    Billing documents mainly control:

    •     No. range

    •     Posting block (Controls posting to accounting)

    •     Relevant for rebate

    •     Account determination procedure

    •     Account determination recon account

    •     Account determination

    •     Output determination procedure


    Account Determination in SAP


    Account determination in SAP-SD happens with the following rule


    Sales Organization


    Chart of Accounts


    Account assignment group –Customer


    Account assignment group-Material


    Account Key




    G/L account on which the postings  has to happen.